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Module 32

Traitors or Patriots? The Continentalism and Nationalism in the Free Trade Elections of 1891 and 1911

Chris Pennington

This module explores the free trade debates of 1891 and 1911 and what they reveal about Canadian continentalism, nationalism, and anti-Americanism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It features excerpts from the speeches or written statements of leading figures in these debates Erastus Wiman, Goldwin Smith, Sir John A. Macdonald, Robert Borden, and Sir Wilfrid Laurier to allow them to explain their positions in their own words.

Primary sources:

Document 1
The Advantages of Commercial Union to Canada and the United States
Erastus Wiman

Document 2
Loyalty
Goldwin Smith

Document 3
Address to the People of Canada (1891)
Sir John A. Macdonald

Document 4 [[cartoon]]
Campaign poster, 1891, "Laying out the Grit campaign."

Document 5 [[cartoon]]
Campaign poster, 1891, "Dignified attitude of the Liberals."

Document 6[[cartoon]]
Campaign poster, 1891, "The way he would like it: Canada for sale."

Document 7 [[cartoon]]
Campaign poster, 1891, "The old flag, the old policy, the old leader."

Document 8
House of Commons Debates, February 9, 1911
Robert Borden

Document 9
Speech made in Cobourg, Ontario Toronto Globe 6 September 1911
Sir Wilfrid Laurier

Secondary sources:

Article 1
The Two Brands of Canadian Nationalism in the Election of 1891
Christopher Pennington

Article 2
A Case Study of Anti-Americanism in English-Speaking Canada: The Election Campaign of 1911
W.M. Baker

 

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