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Module 14

Immigrants and Immigration: The Case of the Irish, 1830-1860

Daniel Samson

Canada may be a nation of immigrants, but just as today some were received more warmly than others. Thousands of Irish immigrants arrived in British North America in the mid-19th century. Most, especially after the great famine, arrived poor and with limited abilities to support themselves. This module explores the many problems (both real and imagined) these immigrants caused, the response of the receiving communities, and the immigrants’ different strategies for supporting themselves.

Primary sources:

  1. Image: The Medical Inspector’s Office, Liverpool, UK (c.1850)
  2. Image: Sectarian Mutual Benefit Societies in Montreal (c. 1860)
  3. Photograph: Memorial at the Irish Memorial National Historic Site, Grosse-Île, Quebec (contemporary photograph)
  4. Text: William Haliburton to Nathaniel Atcheson (20 August 1812)
  5. Table: Immigrants arriving in British North America, 1847, Eighth General Report of Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners (June 1848)
  6. Text: Report of Moses H. Perley, Her Majesty’s Emigration Officer, Saint John, New Brunswick (31 December 1847)
  7. Text: ‘The Riot on Stanley Street’ Globe (Toronto) (15 July 1857)

Secondary sources:

  1. H.C. Pentland. ‘The Development of a Capitalistic Labour Market in Canada,’ The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science (1959)
  2. Donald H. Akenson. The Irish in Ontario (1984)
  3. Brian P. Clarke. Piety and Nationalism: Lay Voluntary Associations and the Creation of an Irish-Catholic Community in Toronto, 1850-1895 (1993)
  4. Rosalyn Trigger. ‘Irish Politics on Parade: The Clergy, National Societies, and St. Patrick’s Day Processions in Nineteenth-century Montreal and Toronto’ Histoire sociale/Social History (2004)

Introduction

List of Modules -- 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50