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Module 5

On the Edge of Empires: Acadians and Mikmaq in the 18th century

Daniel Samson

The colonial world introduced people to new relationships with new peoples. This was especially so in smaller colonies on the edges of larger empires. Acadia was one such place where day-to-day life routinely brought together French Catholics, protestant New Englanders, and Mikmaq. This culturally plural and politically complex world compelled the Acadians to attempt to negotiate a neutral place for themselves in the larger struggle between Britain and France. Though these attempts failed dramatically with the Expulsion of 1755, for over half a century Acadians managed to carve out a successful place for themselves.

Primary sources:

  1. Map: ‘A new and exact map of the Dominions of the King of Great Britain on ye continent of North America Containing Newfoundland, New Scotland, New England, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and Carolina.’ (1715)
  2. Map (detail): A British view of the limits of Acadia. From ‘Carte des pays connus sous le nom de Canada, dans laquelle sont distinguées les possessions françoises, & angl? Dédiée et présentée à Monseigneur le comte D'Argenson, pour le Département de la guerre, par le Sr. Robert de Vaugondy fils, géographe ordinaire du roi.’ (1732)
  3. Map: A French view of the limits of Acadia (c.1735)
  4. Map: French interpretation of a British proposal (1751)
  5. Image: Longfellow’s Evangeline, illustration by F.O.C Darley (1897)
  6. Text: Declaration sent to the French Acadians for Signature (1717)
  7. Text: Answer to the above Declaration [Translated from the French] (1717)
  8. Text: Governor Paul Mascarene’s Report on the conduct of ‘our French Inhabitants’ and ‘their Clanns of Indians’ (1745)
  9. Text: Anon. Report on the “Nature and State of the Province [Nova Scotia] (c.1752)

Secondary sources:

  1. Francis Parkman. Montcalm and Wolfe (1884).
  2. Geoffrey Plank. An Unsettled Conquest: The British Campaign Against the Peoples of Acadia (2001)
  3. John Mack Farragher. A Great and Noble Scheme: The Tragic Story of the Expulsion of the Acadians from their American Homeland (2005)
  4. Naomi F.S. Griffiths. ‘Mating and Marriage in Early Acadia’, Renaissance and Modern Studies (1992)

Introduction

List of Modules -- 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50